Relievers Tables Guide Home
Table Name Full Name Explanation
Rank Position Rank Pitcher's rank by Win Shares Quotient (see below).
Name Pitcher Name Bolded name indicates membership in the National Baseball Hall of Fame.
HOF Hall of Fame BBW indicates pitcher was elected by the Baseball Writers Association of America.
Vet indicates pitcher was elected by the Veterans Committee.
Other indicates pitcher was elected as a manager, executive or other role.
Ban indicates pitcher who should be in the Hall of Fame, but is excluded for cause
detrimental to baseball. 
MVP Most Valuable Player Rank in league's MVP voting. Shaded area indicates award was not given that season.
CY Cy Young Award Rank in league's Cy Young Award voting. Shaded area indicates award was not given that
season.
All-Star All-Star All-Star game status for specified pitcher. "A" indicates starter. "a" indicates spot on
All-Star roster. "A-inj" and "a-inj" indicate All-Star selection, but withdrew due to 
injury. "A-out" and "a-out" indicate All-Star selection, but withdrew for reasons other
than injury. "A-rep" and "a-rep" indicate replacement of All-Star player unable to play.
"A*" and "a*" indicate All-Star Game was not played that season due to World War II.
Shaded area indicates All-Star Game was not played that season.
Rookie Rookie (of the Year) R indicates rookie status. R-number indicates rank in league's Rookie of the Year voting.
Number only indicates rank in league's Rookie of the Year voting, the votes made in error
as the pitcher no longer had rookie status.
Team Team Team(s) pitcher pitched for as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Stdg Standing Team standing(s) for team(s) pitched for. Bold indicates winner of final post-season
championship series (World Series since 1903). Italics indicates loser of final post-
season championship series. Both indicate tie of final post-season championship series.
Throws Throws Pitching side. R - Right, L - Left, U - Unknown.
Age Pitcher's age Pitcher's age as of June 30 for that season. Blank indicates unknown age.
Other Pos Other Positions All other positions pitcher qualified for in all leagues during specified season. 
RA Relief Appearances Games relieved in specified league during specified season. Minimum qualification for table
are based on a two step process. Relievers are tested first for qualification for the
closer table. If he qualifies as a closer, he is then disqualified for the middle reliever
table. Relievers not qualified as closers are then tested to qualify for the middle
reliever table.
Pitchers can qualify only as a closer or a middle reliever in specifed league during
specified season. Unlike all other positions, where players can qualify for multiple 
positions, closers and middle relievers are considered as mutually exclusive. Note that 
closers and middle relievers can qualify as starting pitchers and at any batting position.
Relievers can go back and forth from closers to middle relievers from year to year
depending on which position they qualify for in a given season.
The minimum qualifications for closers are based on save opportunities. The closer tables
begin in 1889, the first season closers qualified in sufficient numbers worth producing 
tables for. As closers gained prominence over the years, the qualifying standards are
raised to meet a reasonable expectation of closer qualification.
The closer standards are:
1889-1905     2 saves          1947-1955     5 saves
1906-1926     3 saves          1956          7 saves    
1927-1946     4 saves          1957-present 10 save opportunities (saves plus blown saves)
Note that blown saves data is available only from 1957 to the present.
The minimum qualifications for middle relievers are based on relief appearances. The middle
relievers tables begin in 1913, the first season middle relievers qualified in sufficient
numbers worth producing tables for. As middle relievers gained prominence over the years,
the qualifying standards are raised to meet a reasonable expectation of middle reliever
qualification.
The middle reliever standards are:
1913-1955      20 relief appearances
1956-1961      25 relief appearances
1962-1990      30 relief appearances
1991-present   40 relief appearances
GF Games Finished Games Finished in specified league during specified season.
W Wins Wins earned as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
L Losses Losses earned as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Svs Saves Saves earned in specified league during specified season.
B Svs Blown Saves Blown Saves earned in specified league during specified season.
Sv% Save Percentage Saves divided by saves plus blown saves.
Innings Innings Innings pitched as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Innings are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
Hits Hits Hits given up as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Hits are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
HR Home Runs Home runs given up as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Home runs are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
R Runs Runs given up as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Runs are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
ER Earned Runs Earned runs given up as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Earned runs are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
SO Strikeouts Strikeouts made as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Strikeouts are pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and are actual figures for 1954 on.
SO/WH Strikeouts/(Walks + Hits) Strikeouts/(hits + walks) made as a reliever in specified league during specified
season. Ratio is based on pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and is based on actual figures
for 1954 on.
This ratio is a combination of two ratios, both measuring pitching effectiveness. 
Strikeouts per inning measures strikeout effectiveness, a higher figure being more
effective. Walks plus hits per inning (WHIP) measures the ability to give up as few
baserunners as possible, a lower figure being more effective. 
Combining these two ratios results in SO/WH, in which a higher figure measures a greater
ability to strike out batters while effectively keeping runners off base. While some
pitchers may strike out many batters per inning, they're not effective in keeping runners
off base. The SO/WH ratio measures the best of both abilities. The A.L. and N.L. SO/WH
leader lists spotlight many of the greatest pitchers in major league history.
ERA Earned Run Average Earned run average made as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
Earned run averages are based on pro-rated estimates for 1876-1953 and on actual figures
for 1954 on.
WS Win Shares Win Shares earned as a reliever in specified league during specified season. Note that,
unlike the hitting positions, no Win Shares are allocated for hitting or fielding
performance as a reliever.
WS/G Win Shares per Game Win Shares earned as a reliever in specified league during specified season divided by
games pitched as a reliever in specified league during specified season.
WSQ Win Shares Quotient The final calculation used to rate pitchers, the reliever's Win Shares times the factor
of the square root of his Win Shares per game divided by the league average Win Shares
per game (see below). This quotient thus accounts for both total production (Win Shares)
and pro-rated production (Win Shares per game). The square root is used to modify the Win
Shares per game factor, ensuring that Win Shares carries the heavier weight in the 
calculation.
League Average Age Age per game as calculated by weighted average of pitcher's ages times games started
divided by games started.
League Average per 50 Average of reliever game statistics per 50 games pitched. Save percentage is calculated
Appearances on the sum of all saves plus blown saves.
League Average per 75 Innings Average of reliever pitching results per 75 innings. The SO/WH ratio and ERA are cal-
culated on the sum of all innings pitched.
League Avg WS/G Average of Win Shares per game based on the sum of Win Shares.
Average WS/Team Sum of Win Shares divided by number of teams in league for specified season. Note that due
to the various save opportunity requirements for closers and relief appearance requirements
for middle relievers, this figure does not represent all of the Win Shares earned for that 
position, but rather the Win Shares earned by those pitchers who qualified for the table.
Copyright © 2009 by Andre Lower
Sources:
All-Time Major League Handbook
Win Shares Digital Update
baseball-reference.com
ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia